Specialties & Services

Specialties

 

Anaesthesiology -Back to List-
Doctors who specialise in anaesthesiology are known as Anaesthetists.
These are the doctors who specialise in administering the anaesthetic agents. The nature of their job often involves looking after unconscious patients and patients on various life supports and, because of this, the Anaesthetist is often a very important member of the intensive care team. The other area of great importance is in the area of pain management. The Anaesthetists utilize their detailed knowledge to administer various drugs which can affect the nerves and to control pain.

Cardiology -Back to List-
Cardiology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system. Heart disease is the commonest cause of death in Malaysia today. Patients with heart disease usually complain of chest pain, shortness of breath, swelling of ankles or legs or blackouts. Another common disease seen by cardiologists is hypertension or high blood pressure. Diseases of the heart can now be treated by medicine, surgery or by putting a thin wire in through a blood vessel in the groin or wrist and rectify the narrowing in the artery that supplies blood to the heart.

Cardiothoracic Surgery -Back to List-
The Surgeons who specialise in operating diseases of the heart, lungs and the thoracic cage are known as Cardiothoracic Surgeons. This specialty involves dealing with a very wide range of problems affecting the lungs and the heart and the tissues inside the thoracic cage. This is especially so when the illness requires surgical intervention. The more prominent illnesses that require the help of the Cardiothoracic Surgeon are Coronary Artery bypass, repair of Vulvular Heart disease, resection of lung especially in Lung cancer etc. Sometimes surgical intervention is also needed in order to find out the diagnosis of the disease process that affects the organs in the chest.

Clinical Oncology -Back to List-
Oncology is a medical speciality focusing on the treatment of cancer of organs (solid tumours). A physician that works in the field of oncology is called an Oncologist. Proper diagnosis and staging, including clinical examination, blood, urine or other body fluids investigations and histopathology examination, are carried out to come out with suitable therapy for each individual patient. The treatment options available are surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and palliative care such as cancer pain management, release of pressure in closed compartments e.g cranium, spinal column,thorax etc.:-


Surgery:
Surgery is the mainstay in cancer management as it can extirpate bulk of the disease. At times, surgery itself is sufficient to cure the cancer. Unfortunately, often the disease tends to relapse despite complete excision. Therefore, further treatment, known as adjuvant treatment is necessary. Adjuvant treatment is given in the absence of any detectable disease post-surgery with a view to “prevent” recurrence disease or prolonged recurrence-free survival.

Chemotherapy:
Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer using cytotoxic drugs. As these drugs are taken up by all growing cells in addition to cancer cells, certain side effects do occur. Fortunately, medications which can counteract the adverse effects of chemotherapy are prescribed as well. As cancer cells are metabolically more active than normal cells, cytotoxic drugs will preferentially kill more of the cancer cells. Chemotherapy usually is by intravenous infusion (IV line) but some of them can be given orally.

Targeted Therapy:
There are specific receptors present on the cell membrane or inside of cancer cells, some drugs can selectively attach themselves to those receptors exerting cytotoxic effect or cytostatic effect on these cancerous cells with the normal cells being unaffected. Examples of targeted therapy are Herceptin (Trastuzumab), Erbitux (Cetuximab), Panatuzumab, Rituximab etc.

Hormonal Therapy:
Some cancers like breast, prostate, thyroid cancers are hormone-dependent. If specific hormone is blocked, those cancers can be controlled with minimal side effects associated.

Ear, Nose & Throat Surgery -Back to List-
Ear, nose, and throat surgery is the surgical treatment of diseases, injuries, or deformations of the ears, nose, throat, head, and neck areas. The purpose of surgery to the ears, nose, throat, head, and neck is to treat an abnormality (defect or disease) in these anatomical areas. Ear surgery is usually performed to correct specific causes of hearing loss. Nose surgery can include different types of procedures necessary to treat sinus problems (sinus surgery). Throat surgery can include complicated procedures such as cancer of the larynx (laryngectomy), or more simple procedures such as surgical removal of the adenoids (adenoidectomy) or tonsils (tonsillectomy). Head and neck surgery may be necessary to remove a tumor or reconstruct an area after disfigurement from trauma or injury.

Emergency Medicine -Back to List-
Emergency medicine, also known as accident and emergency medicine, is a medical specialty concerned with the care of illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention. As first-line providers, emergency physicians manage unscheduled patients of all ages with undifferentiated ailments of all types. They are primarily responsible for initiating resuscitation and stabilization and beginning investigations and interventions to diagnose and treat illnesses in the acute phase.
Emergency physicians generally practise in hospital emergency departments, pre-hospital settings via emergency medical services, and intensive care units, but may also work in primary care settings such as urgent care clinics. They may subspecialize in fields like disaster medicine, medical toxicology, ultrasonography, critical care medicine, hyperbaric medicine, sports medicine, palliative care, or aerospace medicine.

Gastroenterology & Hepatology-Back to List-
Gastroenterology covers diseases of the digestive tract which comprises the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, the liver, gallbladder, and the pancreas. Physicians who practise gastroenterology, ( which is a sub-speciality of internal medicine), are trained to investigate and treat patients with these conditions.
Some of the symptoms that may show up include abdominal pain, vomiting, abdominal swelling, jaundice, diarrhoea and bleeding. Certain gastroenterological diseases such as hepatitis (inflammation of the liver ) require purely medical (i.e. non-operative ) treatment. Other conditions eg. gastrointestinal bleeding may require combined management by both physician and surgeon. Therefore in practise gastroenerologists work closely with their surgical colleagues and will refer or accept patients for consultation when appropriate.

General Radiology -Back to List-
Radiologists are medical doctors that specialize in diagnosing and treating injuries and diseases using medical imaging (radiology) procedures (exams/tests) such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), mammography, angiography and ultrasound.
Radiologists diagnose and treat patients using image-guided, minimally invasive techniques such as ultrasound, CT and MRI. They use imaging to carefully guide instruments through tiny incisions in the body, reaching the source of a medical problem and delivering targeted treatments. These treatments are for conditions such as cancer and uterine fibroids, offering less risk, pain and recovery time. These minimally invasive procedures provide an alternative to traditional surgery.

General & Interventional Radiology -Back to List-
Interventional Radiology is a subspecialty of radiology in which minimally invasive procedures are performed using image guidance. Some of these procedures are done for purely diagnostic purposes (e.g., angiogram), while others are done for treatment purposes (e.g., angioplasty). Pictures (images) are used to direct these procedures, which are usually done with needles or other tiny instruments like small tubes called catheters. The images provide road maps that allow the Interventional Radiologist to guide these instruments through the body to the areas of interest.
Common interventional imaging modalities include fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

General Surgery -Back to List-
Doctors who specialise in general surgery are known as Surgeons. The Surgeons are well known for their skills in performing surgical operation. Many individual surgeons in addition to their general surgical skill would also have developed an interest in a field of their personal liking. Examples are like colorectal surgery, endocrine surgery, and in the recent years endoscopic surgery and minimally invasive surgery. Besides these, surgeons are also familiar and skilled in performing diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic endoscopic examinations.

Geriatric Medicine-Back to List-
Geriatric medicine is a branch of medicine concerned with all aspects of health and illness in elderly. Doctors who specialise in the health and illness of elderly are known as Geriatricians. They are specially trained to evaluate and manage the unique healthcare needs of elderly, alongside with prevention of disease and disability in older people. Geriatricians are concerned with health problems that frequently affect older adults, such as falls osteoporosis, immobility, cognitive impairment (delirium and dementia), incontinence, medication side effects and managing multiple chronic conditions. Another important aspect of geriatric medicine is the evaluation of an elderly patient's ability to perform daily activities such as bathing, dressing, eating and assisting them by co-ordinating rehabilitation of elderly people.

Internal Medicine -Back to List-
Doctors who specialise in Internal medicine are generally known as Physicians. They are skilled in using medications to treat all kinds of ailments. In the course of their training to become physicians they would also have learned many practical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Hence, many Physicians are skilled in performing endoscopic examinations, ultrasound imaging, and the interpretation of test results.

Neonatology -Back to List-
Neonatology is a subspecialty of paediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn infants. It is a hospital-based specialty, and is usually practised in neonatal intensive care units. The principal patients of neonatologists are newborn infants who are ill or requiring special medical care due to prematurity, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, congenital malformations (birth defects), sepsis, or birth asphyxias.

Nephrology -Back to List-
Nephrology is a specialty of internal medicine which involves kidney function, kidney infection, autoimmune disease, electrolytes imbalance and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). A nephrologist is a medical doctor who specializes in the care and treatment of kidney diseases. He treats acute kidney injuries and chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and manages dialysis care for people with end stage renal disease. Procedures a nephrologist may perform include kidney biopsy and dialysis access insertion (temporary vascular access lines, tunnelled vascular access lines, peritoneal dialysis access lines).

Neurosurgery -Back to List-
Neurosurgery is a surgical specialty that deals with the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. Surgeons who practise in this field are known as neurosurgeons. Neurosurgical diseases that are commonly managed by neurosurgeons include traumatic head injury, cerebrovascular problems (haemorrhage and aneurysms), brain tumour, surgery for congenital abnormalities, degenerative diseases of spine. Neurosurgeons play an important role in the management of brain injury especially when it comes to preventing further damage to the brain.

Obstetrics & Gynaecology -Back to List-
Doctors who specialise in looking after female reproductive life are known as Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. These two areas of work often are fused and trained as one. Obstetrics is basically the specialty that involves looking after the process of pregnancy and delivery in female patients while gynaecology involves the management of problems that arise from the female reproductive organs. This field is very wide but the doctors in this field can expertly treat many seemingly unrelated problems like urinary incontinence in female. The other very important area often investigated and treated is infertility. Menopause issues and women with other sex hormone imbalances can also be helped by getting the right advice and treatment from the Gynaecologist.

Oculoplastic & Orbital Surgery-Back to List-
An oculoplastic and orbital surgeon is an ophthalmologist who performs cosmetic and reconstructive surgery of the periocular area, which includes the eyelids, orbit (bones and anatomic structures around the eyeball) and tear duct.

Oculoplastic surgery, the services provided are:

  • Botox injection for wrinkles and blepharospasm
  • Dermal filler for upper lid trough, tear trough, cheek, buccal , laugh lines, smile lines, lip and chin augmentation (cosmetic)
  • Double eyelid surgery (cosmetic)
  • Blepharoplasty for excess skin
  • Eyebag surgery (cosmetic)
  • Ptosis correction including brow suspension techniques
  • Brow lift
  • Epiblepharon (eyelashes poking eyes secondary to lower lid inturning due to excess skin common among Chinese children) correction
  • Abnormal lid position (entropion/ ectropion ) correction
  • Oncology: tumour removal and reconstruction
  • Lid fornix (eyelid pocket) reformation
  • Evisceration/ enucleation
  • Secondary orbital implant

Lacrimal surgery, the services provided are:

  • External dacryocystorhinostomy (for blocked tear duct)
  • Endonasal (scarless) dacryocystorhinostomy (for blocked tear duct)
  • Lester Jones tube (for blocked upper tear duct)

Orbital surgery, the services provided are:

  • Orbital biopsy (anterior & posterior i.e. deep eye socket behind eyeball)
  • Orbital decompression (2 walls & 3 walls for thyroid eye disease)
  • Orbital fracture repair
  • Enophthalmos (sunken eyeball) correction
  • Exenteration with skin graft (for extensive eye socket tumour )

Ophthalmology -Back to List-
Doctors who are specialised in treating eye conditions are known as Ophthalmologists. They are trained to examine the eyes in detail and to make accurate diagnosis. They will then advise on the optimal treatment for the specific condition with medication, surgery or both. Detailed examination of the eyes sometimes can also reveal underlying systemic illnesses like diabetes, high blood pressure etc.

Orthopaedic Surgery -Back to List-
Doctors who specialise in orthopaedics are known as Orthopaedic Surgeons. The orthopaedic surgeons are skilled in treating diseases affecting the bone, skeleto- muscular system and the joints. They are well known for fixing fractured bones, they are also skilled in treating various painful conditions due to degenerative changes or other pathological processes that are affecting the bone, muscle or the joints.

Paediatrics -Back to List-
Doctors who specialise in paediatrics are known as Paediatricians. Paediatricians are skilled in treating illnesses that affect the children. Special training is needed because many diseases that affect the children can be very different from that of adults. Moreover, certain complications may be very different, for instance the patients seen by the Paediatricians may be affected by illnesses that are congenital or are hereditary. Another example is that the young patients are still growing, hence the disease process is quite apart from causing problems to the particular system that may also disturb or delay the developmental process of the patient. Like fields in medicine, the psychological and the social impacts for the patient of any particular illness may also be very different from that of adults. A Paediatrician who has his counterpart in the General Physician is skilled in using medications in treating a very wide range of illnesses.

Pathology -Back to List-
Pathology is the study and diagnosis of diseases through examination of organs, tissues, bodily fluids and whole body (Autopsy). The term also encompasses the related scientific study of disease processes called General pathology. General pathology, also called investigative pathology, experimental pathology or theoretical pathology, is a broad and complex scientific field which seeks to understand the mechanisms of injuries to cells and tissues, as well as the bodies’ means of responding to and repairing injuries. This study includes cellular adaptation to injury, necrosis, inflammation, wound healing and neoplasia which facilitate the knowledge to diagnose diseases in humans. Medical pathology is divided into two main branches, Anatomical pathology and Clinical pathology. Medical pathologists are physicians who diagnose and characterize diseases in living patients by examining biopsies or body fluid. Most cancer diagnoses are made or confirmed by pathologists. Pathologists may also conduct autopsies to investigate causes of death. Forensic pathology is a branch of Pathology concerned with determining the cause of death by examination of a cadaver. The autopsy is performed by the pathologist at the request of a coroner usually during the investigation of criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions. Forensic pathologists are also frequently asked to confirm the identity of a cadaver.

Prosthodontics / Dentistry -Back to List-
A Prosthodontist is a Dental Surgeon who specialises in procedures such as union and bridgework, denture work, tooth implants, root canal treatment and other cosmetic dentistry and restorative dentistry like fillings and extractions.

Psychiatry -Back to List-
Doctors who specialise in psychiatry are known as Psychiatrists. A Psychiatrist is skilled in treating mental illnesses. The recent advances in the field of psychiatry has equipped Psychiatrists with a wide range of medications that are able to restore the imbalances to the chemicals in the brain when there is mental illness. A Psychiatrist is also trained in treating patients who become mentally disturbed due to certain traumatic life events by guiding and identifying the problems for the patient- Psychotherapy.

Reproductive Medicine (IVF) -Back to List-
Reproductive Medicine is a specialty that deals with prevention, diagnosis and management of reproductive problems. The goals of this branch of medicine include improving or maintaining reproductive health and allowing patients to have children at the time of their choosing. Methods of evaluation may include: imaging techniques, laboratory methods and reproductive surgery. Treatment methods include counseling, pharmacology (eg. Medications for fertility), surgery, and other methods. In vitro fertilization has evolved as a major treatment method that has enabled the pre-implantation study of the embryo

Respiratory Medicine -Back to List-
Respiratory, pulmonology or chest medicine is a specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. This specialty is considered a branch of internal medicine and is closely related to intensive care medicine and thoracic surgery. When dealing with patients requiring mechanical ventilation, respiratory medicine is combined with the diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases as well as secondary prevention as in tuberculosis.

Spine Surgery -Back to List-
Spine surgery is a branch of orthopaedic surgery to treat conditions of the spine.

Sports Injury Surgery -Back to List-
Sports injury surgery is a branch of orthopaedic surgery concerned with treating injuries involving the musculoskeletal that occur to athletes in major sporting events. In many cases, these types of injuries are usually due to overuse of a part of the body when participating in a certain activity. For example, runner’s knee is a painful condition generally associated with running, while tennis elbow is a form of repetitive stress injury at the elbow. Other types of injuries can be caused by a hard contact with something. This can often cause a broken bone or torn ligament or tendon.

Urology -Back to List-
Urology is the surgical specialty that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males. Medical professionals specializing in the field of urology are called urologists and are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with urological disorders. The organs covered by urology include the kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis). Urology combines management of medical (i.e., non-surgical) problems such as urinary infections, and surgical problems such as the corrections of congenital abnormalities and the surgical management of cancers.

Vitreoretinal Surgery -Back to List-
Retina Specialists are ophthalmologists that specialize in the treatment of diseases pertaining to the posterior segment of the eye (ie vitreous, retina, choroid). These diseases are subdivided into medical and surgical retina pathologies depending on their primary treatment modality. Although most ophthalmologists can treat medical retina conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion and age related macular degeneration with laser and intravitreal injection therapy, medical retina specialists have extensive in-depth knowledge and experience to manage the complicated ones.
Vitreoretinal (VR) surgeons specialise in treating posterior segment surgical conditions such as retinal detachment, non-clearing hemorrhage in the vitreous and retina from a variety of causes (ie. advance diabetic retinopathy or retinal vein occlusion), macula hole, epiretinal membrane and vitreomacular traction, endophthalmitis and vitritis, penetrating eye trauma with embedded foreign body, dislocated cataract or intraocular lens, etc. Such surgeons normally require 2-3 years of additional training in this field after completing their ophthalmology residency. It is one of the most advanced field in medicine requiring specialized machinery to perform complex microsurgery such as the removal of the vitreous gel (vitrectomy), endolaser retinopexy or cryopexy, intravitreal insertion of gasseous or silicone oil tamponade, epiretinal membrane and internal limiting membrane peel, desegmentation and delamination of proliferative neovascular membranes, subretinal drainage of fluid and blood clot, etc.
Most VR surgeons are also accomplished cataract surgeons where a major part of their work involves managing difficult cataracts such as the subluxated ones with poor zonular support (eg. Patient with Marfan Syndrome) or those that have dislocated into the vitreous cavity (eg. Ocular trauma). Sometimes, VR surgeons are also called upon by their colleagues in different subspecialty to co-manage cases such as retinopathy of prematurity (by the paediatric ophthalmologists) and aqueous misdirection (glaucoma specialists). In fact, it is becoming a standard of care for glaucoma patients needing the insertion of glaucoma drainage device to undergo vitrectomy prior to the insertion of these tubes through the pars plana to avoid cornea injury.

Share this: